This error occurs when I try to use latex after upgrading to fedora 16. After Google it, I find the reason may be when upgrading, the pregrade just update the system components, but not user applications, such as texlive. And since current version texlive counts on some older libraries, issues occur.

I find that the current libpoppler in /usr/lib is, so I made a symbolic link to it:

sudo ln -s /usr/lib/ /usr/lib/

This fixes the problem. Thanks to this post